Main Article Content


Cancer is recognized as global threat to human development and it was estimated that in 2030 there will be 22.2 million new cases of cancer and 12.7 million cancer-related deaths worldwide. Herbal medicine plant till this day all over in the word is still the main source and one of the most important fields of traditional medicine agents to fight breast cancer. The usage of plants is still important because has its own beaviour advantages such as low toxicity, easy to get, cheap and has less side effect if it is used in a right. One of this plant it has been used as a traditional medicine is a Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl) also known as Mahkota Dewa from Papua island. It has been used traditionally for treatment of cancers in Indonesia and also to cure many diseases. The therapeutic effect of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl, is related to the its bioactive compounds contents. There are many reported compounds from Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl, which are found, reported and published such as Icariside, phalerin, mangiferin, gallic acid, 29-Norcucurbitacin, gentiobioside and glucoside. All compounds reported above have already published as anticancer agents,where anticancer activity were detected and showed against Hela cells, leukemia cells, cervical cancer, breast cancer, and L1210 cells. Research on Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl fruit and leaves merit have been done and published, however, there are very limited research on linked correlation between the concentration of compounds and its the cytotoxicity  level. Because of that, research about correlation level of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl leaves extract still need to investigate to find the relationship between them in the goal to investigate alternative low cost herbal medicine agents to fight breast cancer especially useful for low income people, thus, information about Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl.Leaves became more complete. Cytotoxicity properties of samples against breast cancer cell lines was performed by using the MTT assay against MCF-7 cell line. The correlation between concentration of crude and cytotoxic activity was interpreted by statistical analyses. The study showed that Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl.) leaves extracts showed cytoxicity activity against breast cancer MCF7 cell lines. Correlation between concentration of extract and cytotoxicity property (absorbance value) were founded in weak relationship (R = -0.37181). It could be effect of many different compounds in the Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl.) leaves methanol extracts may cause the pharmacological interactions, so lower or higher concentration will be antagonistic effect on absorbance or cell viability.Further study on its mechanism pathway on revealing against breast cancer could be explored. Furthermore, the natural product derived from Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl.) leaves extracts have potential use in cheap alternative agents against breast cancer

Article Details


  1. Andriani, Y. 2005. Pengaruh ekstrak daun jati belanda (Guazuma ulmifolia Lamk.) terhadap bobot badan kelinci yang diberi pakan berlemak. Jurnal Gradien 1(2): 74-76.
  2. Andriani, Y. 2007. Uji aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak betaglukan dari Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. Jurnal Gradien 3(1): 226-230.
  3. Andriani, Y. 2008. Toksisitas fraksi aktif steroid ekstrak daun jati belanda (Guazuma Ulmifolia Lamk.) terhadap aktivitas serum glutamat oksalat transaminase (SGOT) dan serum glutamat piruvat transaminase (SGPT) pada tikus putih. Jurnal Gradien 4(2): 365-371.
  4. Andriani, Y., M.E.A. Wahid, T.S.T. Muhammad, and H. Mohamad. 2011. Antibacterial, radical – scavenging activities and cytotoxicity properties of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl leaves in HEPG2 cell lines. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Research 2 (7): 1700-1706. Andriani, Y., G.S. Chew, T.S.T. Muhammad, H. Mohamad, J. Latip, M.E.A. Wahid. 2014. A new 4',6-dihydroxy, 4-methoxybenzophenone-2-O-?-D-gentiobioside, and 4',6-dihydroxy,4 methoxybenzophenone-2-O-?-D-glucoside isolated from methanolic extract of Phaleriamacrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl leaves. International Journal of Phytomedicine 6(1): 63-72.
  5. Andriani, Y., T.S.T. Muhammad, H. Mohamad, J. Saidin, D.F. Syamsumir, G.S. Chew, and M.E.A. Wahid. 2015. Phaleria macrocarpa Boerl. (Thymelaeaceae) leaves increase sr-bi expression and reduce cholesterol levels in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Molecules 20: 4410-4429. Andriani, Y., M N Ramli, D.F. Syamsumir, M.N.I. Kassim, J. Jaafar, N.A. Aziz, L. Marlina, N.S. Musa, H. Mohamad. 2015. Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxicity properties of keys and cores parts of pandanus tectorius fruits. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. Retrieved from pii/S1878535215003159 ·
  6. Andriani, Y., D.F. Syamsumir, T.C. Yee, F.S. Harisson, G.M. Herng, S.A. Abdullah, C.A. Oroscoa, A.M. Ali, J. Latip, H. Kikuzaki, and H. Mohamad. 2016. biological activities of isolated compounds from three edible Malaysian red seaweeds, Gracilaria changii, G. manilaensis and Gracilaria sp. Natural Product Communications 11(8): 1117-1120.
  7. Bray, F., A. Jemal, N. Grey, J. Ferlay. 2012. Global cancer transitions according to the Human Development Index (2008–2030): A population-based study. The Lancet Oncology 13(8): 790801.
  8. Eldeen, I., M.S. Habsah. H. Mohamed, W.N. Tan, J.Y.S. Fong. Y. Andriani, and T.S.T. Muhammad. 2016. Cyclooxygenase, 5-Lipoxygenase and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effects of fractions containing, ?-Guaiene and oil isolated from the root of Xylocarpus moluccensis. Research Journal of Medicinal Plant 10(4): 286-294.
  9. Faried, A, D. Kurnia, L.S. Faried, N. Usman, T. Miyazaki, H. Kato, and H. Kuwano. 2007. Anticancer effect of gallic acid isolated from Indonesian herbal medicine, Phaleria macrocarpa (scheff.) Boerl. on human cancer cell lines. International Journal of Oncology 30(3): 605-613.
  10. Ferlay, J., H.R. Shin, F. Bray, D. Forman, C. Mathers, and D.M. Parkin. 2010. Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. International Journal of Cancer 127(12); 2893– 2917.
  11. Fresco, P., F. Borges, M.P. Marques, and C. Diniz. 2010. The anticancer properties of dietary polyphenols and its relation with apoptosis. Current Pharmaceutical Design 16(1): 114-134
  12. Ghasemzadeh, A., H.Z.E. Jaafar, and A. Rahmat. 2010. Antioxidant activities, total phenolics and flavonoids content in two varieties of Malaysia young ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Molecules 15: 4324-4333.
  13. Ginsburg O.M. Breast and cervical cancer control in low and middle-income countries: Human rights meet sound health policy. 2013. Journal of Cancer Policy 1(3-4): e35–e41.
  14. Golden, E. B., P.Y. Lam, A. Kardosh, K.J. Gaffney, E. Cadenas, S. G. Louie, N.A. Petasis, T.C. Chen, A.H. Schonthal. 2009. Green tea polyphenols block the anticancer effects of bortezomib and other boronic acid–based proteasome inhibitors. Blood Journal 113(23): 5927-5937.
  15. Goldhirsch, A., W.C. Wood, A.S. Coates, R.D. Gelber, B. Thürlimann, H.J. Senn, and Panel members. 2011. Strategies for subtypes--dealing with the diversity of breast cancer: highlights of the St. Gallen International Expert Consensus on the Primary Therapy of Early Breast Cancer 2011. Annals of Oncology 22(8): 1736–1747.
  16. Greenlee, H., M.L. Kwan, I.J. Ergas, K.J. Sherman, S.E. Krathwohl, C. Bonnell, M.M. Lee, and L.H. Kushi. 2009. Complementary and alternative therapy use before and after breast cancer diagnosis: The Pathways Study. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 117(3): 653–665
  17. Harahap Y, N.F. Syafhan, and B. Karsono. 2007. In vitro cytotoxicity test of mahkota dewa fruit dosage form on MCF-7 cell. Jurnal Bahan Alam Indonesia 6(2): 55-59.
  18. Heo, H.J., Y.J. Kim, D. Chung, and D.O. Kim. 2007. Antioxidant capacities of individual and combined phenolics in a model system. Food Chemistry 104(1): 87-92.
  19. Jacobo-Velazquez, D.A. and L. Cisneros-Zevallos. 2009. Correlations of antioxidant activity against phenolic content revisited: A new approach in data analysis for food and medicinal plants. Journal of Food Science 74(9): 107-113.
  20. Jin, F., S.S. Devesa, W.H. Chow, W.Z. Heng, J.B. Tian, Jr.JF. Fraumeni, and Y.T. Gao. 1999. Cancer incidence trends in urban Shanghai: 1974–1994: An update. International Journal of Cancer 83 (4): 435–440.
  21. Krieger, N. 2002. Is breast cancer a disease of affluence, poverty, or both? The case of African- American women. American Journal of Public Health 92(4): 611-613.
  22. Kurnia, D., K. Akiyama, and H. Hayashi. 2008. 29-Norcucurbitacin derivates isolated from Indonesian medicinal plant Phaleriamacrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 72(2): 618-620.
  23. Lee, M.M., S.S. Lin, M.R. Wrensch, S.R. Adler, and D. Eisenberg. 2000. Alternative therapies used by women with breast cancer in four ethnic populations. Journal of National Cancer Institute 92(1): 42-47.
  24. Lisdawati V. and L.B.S. Kardono. 2006. Antioxidant activity of various extract fractions of Phaleriamacrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl .fruit and mesocarp. MEDIA Litbang Kesehatan16(4): 1-7.
  25. Mae, S.H.W., M. Sofi, G.G. Ibnu, T.H. Mark, K.V. Rao, and W. Subagus. 2005. Phalerin, a new benzophenoic glycoside isolated from the methanolic extract of Phaleria macrocarpa (scheff). Boerl leaves. Majalah Farmasi Indonesia 16(1): 51 - 57.
  26. Matsuno, R.K., S. Ian, I.S. Pagano, G. Maskarinec, F. Brian, B.F. Issell, and C.C. Gotay. 2012. Complementary and alternative medicine use and breast cancer prognosis: A pooled analysis of four population-based studies of breast cancer survivors. Journal of Women’s Health 21 (12): 252-258.
  27. Mohamad, H., Y. Andriani, K. Bakar, C.C. Siang, D.F. Syamsumir, A. Alias and S.A.M. Radzi. 2015. Effect of drying method on anti-microbial, anti-oxidant activities and isolation of bioactive compounds from Peperomia pellucida (L) Hbk. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research 7(8): 578-584.
  28. Mosmann, T. 1983. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. Journal of Immunology Methods 65(1–2): 55-63.
  29. Mudahar, H., W. Lely, and D. Sinta. 2005. Cytotoxic bioassay of ethanol fraction of Mahkota Dewa fruit mesocarp to cervix cancer cell. Jurnal Bahan Alam Indonesia 4(2): 275-279.
  30. The potential use of Phaleria macrocarpa leaves extract
  31. Oshimi, S., K. Zaima, Y. Matsuno, Y. Hirasawa, T. Iizuka, H. Studiawan, G. Indrayanto, N.C. Zaini, and H. Morita. 2008. Studies on the constituents from the fruits of Phaleria macrocarpa. Journal of Natural Medicines 62: 207-210.
  32. Nahleh, Z. and I.A. Tabbara. Complementary and alternative medicine in breast cancer patients. Palliative and Supportive Care 1(3): 267-273.
  33. Ontilo, A.A., J.M. Enget, R.T. Greenlee, and B.N. Mukesh. 2009. Breast cancer subtypes based on ER/PR and HER-2/neu expression: Comparison of clinicopathologic features and survival. Clinical Medicine & Research 7(1-2): 4-13.
  34. Purwantini, I., E.P. Setyowati, and T. Hertiani. 2002. Uji toksisitas ekstrak etanol: buah, biji, daun, makuta dewa [Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl.] terhadap Artemia salina Leach dan profil KLT ekstrak aktif. Majalah Farmasi Indonesia 13(2):101-106.
  35. Radzi, S.A.M., Y. Andriani, H. Mohamad, T.S.T. Muhammad, and J. Saidin. 2015. In-vitro antiinflammatory activities of extracts from bacteria associated with marine sponges: Theonella SP. Jurnal Teknologi (Sciences & Engineering) 77(25): 165–169.
  36. Ren, W., Z. Qiao, H. Wang, L. Zhu, and L. Zhang. 2003. Flavonoids: Promising anti-cancer agents. Medicinal Research Reviews. 23(4): 519–534.
  37. Sankaranarayanan, R., R. Swaminathan, H. Brenner, K. Chen, K.S. Chia, … , and N. Al-Hamdan. 2010. Cancer survival in Africa, Asia, and Central America: A population-based study. The Lancet Oncology 11(2): 165–173.
  38. Sumastuti, R. and M. Sonlimar. 2002. Efek sitotoksik ekstrak buah dan daun mahkota dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl. terhadap sel hela. Medika 28(12): 773-777.
  39. Tambunan, R.M. and P. Simanjuntak. 2006. Determination of chemical structure of antioxidant compound benzophenone glycoside from nbutanol extract of the fruits of mahkotadewa [Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl.] Majalah Farmasi Indonesia 17(4): 184-189.
  40. Widodo, I., F. Paranita, A. Harijadi, F.X.E. Triningsih, T. Utoro, and S. Soeripto. 2013. Clinicopathological significance of lymphangiogenesis and tumor lymphovascular invasion in indonesian breast cancers. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 14(2): 997-1001.
  41. Widodo, I., E.K. Dwianingsih, E. Triningsih, T. Utoro, S. Soeripto. 2014. Clinicopathological features of Indonesian breast cancers with different molecular subtypes. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 15(5): 6109-6113
  42. Winarno, H. and K.W. Ermin. 2009. Benzophenone glycoside isolated from ethyl acetate extract of the bark of mahkotadewa (Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl.) and its inhibitory activity on Leukimia L1210 Cell line. Indonesian Journal of Chemistry 9(1): 142-145.
  43. Yao, H., W. Xu, X. Shi, and Z. Zhang. 2011. Dietary flavonoids as cancer prevention agents. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C 29(1): 1-31.
  44. Zalilawati, M.R, Y. Andriani, K. Shaari, N. Bourgougnon, A.M. Ali, T.S.T. Muhammad, and H. Mohamad. 2015. Induction of apoptosis and anti HSV-1 activity of 3-(phenethylamino) demethyl(oxy) aaptamine from a Malaysian Aaptos aaptos. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research 7(10): 330-341.