Main Article Content


Coastal area of Bengkulu Province is home of many heirloom rice varieties and play an important role in contributing rice production in the province. However, as the climate change proceeds, a progressive sea water inundation has increased soil salinity mainly in low-lying areas and jeopardizing the sustainability of rice production in coastal regions.  The use of salt-tolerant varieties, therefore, would be a sensible solution to alleviate the adverse effect of soil salinity in respect of maintaining the crop production in the coastal areas. The objective of this study was to examine the salinity tolerance of 20 heirloom rice varieties collected from a coastal area of Bengkulu Province.  Prior to the screening process, lethal concentration 90 (LC90) was determined by assaying the seedlings of ‘Kuning Tinggi’ in a series of nutrient solution containing a different concentration of NaCl (0, 2000, 4000, 6000, 8000 and 10000 ppm). Using a regression analysis, LC90 was detected at a concentration of 3910 ppm. The screening was performed by exposing the varieties in the nutrient solution culture containing 4000 ppm NaCl and growing them on the tidal swamp. Under nutrient culture evaluation, the symptom of NaCl toxicity was scored and converted to salinity tolerance index. ‘Humbur’, ‘Kuning Tinggi’ and ‘Padang Bakung’ exhibited medium tolerant, while ‘Beram’, ‘Imperata’ and ‘Kuning’ exhibited very sensitive. Further evaluation of the tidal swamp for vegetative and generative performances signified that ‘Humbur’ and ‘Kuning Tinggi’ had medium tolerant to salinity stress

Article Details

Author Biography

Rustikawati Rustikawati, Scopus ID 56527107600 The University of Bengkulu

How to Cite
Rustikawati, R., Herison, C., Chozin, M., & Indres, I. (2020). Tolerance of 20 heirloom rice varieties at seedling stage salinity stressed and their growth in lowland coastal area. Akta Agrosia, 23(2), 47–54. Retrieved from


  1. Mohammadi-Nejad, G., R. K. Singh, A. Arzani, H. Sabouri, G. B. Gregorio, and A. M. Rezaie. 2012. Evaluation of salinity tolerance in rice genotypes. International Journal of Plant Production 4(3): 199-208.
  2. Hosseini, S. J., Z. T. Sarvestani, H. Pirdashti, A. Afkhami, and S. Hazrati. 2012. Estimation of heritability and genetic advance for screening some rice genotypes at salt stress conditions. International journal of Agronomy and Plant Production 3(11): 475-482.
  3. Ahmadizadeh, M., N.A. Vispo, C.D.O. Calapit-Palao, I.D. Pangaan, C.D. Viña, and R.K. Singh. 2016. Reproductive stage salinity tolerance in rice: a complex trait to phenotype. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology, 21(4), 528-536.
  4. Dasgupta, S., M.M. Hossain, M. Huq, and D. Wheeler. 2014. Climate change, soil salinity, and the economics of high-yield rice production in coastal Bangladesh. The World Bank.
  5. Dika, M.P., T.J. Santoso, and A. Salamah. 2013. Screening and integration analysis of OsDREBIA BC4F2and BC5F1 generation of transgenic Ciherang rice (Oryza sativa L.) for high salinity tolerance. Makara J. Sci. 17(2): 63-69.
  6. Grattan, S.R., L. Zeng, M.C. Shannon. & S.R. Roberts. 2002. Rice is more sensitive to salinity than previously thought. California Agric., 56:189-195.
  7. Gregorio, G.B. 1997. Tagging salinity tolerance genes in rice using amplified fragment length polymorphism AFLP. Univ. Philippines, Los Baños, Philippines.
  8. Herison, C., S.H. Sutjahjo, I. Sulastri, Rustikawati and S. Marwiyah. 2018. Genetic diversity analysis in 27 tomato accessions using morphological and molecular markers. Agrivita Journal of Agricultural Sciences 40(1):36-44.
  9. Hoang, T.I., L. Moghaddam,, B. Williams, H. Khanna, J. Dal, and S.G. Mundree. 2015. Development of salinity tolerance in rice by constitutive-over expression of genes involved in the regulation of programmed cell death. Front. Plant Sci. 6(175): 1-14
  10. Hoang, T.I., L. Moghaddam,, B. Williams, H. Khanna, J. Dal, and S.G. Mundree. 2016. Improvement of Salinity Stress Tolerance in Rice: Challenges and OpportunitiesAgronomy 6(54): 1-23
  11. Hoque, M.M., Z. Jun, W. Guoying. 2015. Evaluation of salinity tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes at seedling stage J. BioSci. Biotechnol. 4(1): 39-49.
  12. Horie T., I. Karahara, M. Katsuhara. 2012. Salinity tolerance mechanisms in glycophytes: An overview with the central focus on rice plants. Rice, 5:11.
  13. IRRI. 1996. Standard Evaluation System for Rice. International Rice Research Institute. Los Banos. Filipines.
  14. Kumar K, M. Kumar, S.R. Kim, H. Ryu, Y.G. Cho. 2013. Insights into genomics of salt stress response in rice. Rice 6(1): 27.
  15. Li Z. K.and J.L. Xu. 2007. Breeding for drought and salt tolerant rice (Oryza sativa L.): progress and perspectives, in: M. A. Jenks, et al. (Eds.), Advances in Molecular Breeding Toward Drought and Salt Tolerant Crops, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. pp. 531-564.
  16. Lutts, S., J.M. Kinet, J. Bouharmont. 1995. Changes in plant response to NaCl during development of rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties differing in salinity resistance. J. Exp. Bot. 46(12): 1843–1852.
  17. Mantri, N., V. Patade, S. Penna, R. Ford, E. Pang. 2012. Abiotic stress responses in plants: Present and future. In: Ahmad P, Prasad M N V. Abiotic Stress Responses in Plants: Metabolism, Productivity and Sustainability. New York: Springer: 1–19.
  18. Munns, R., M. Tester. 2008. Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 59: 651–681.
  19. Platten, J. D, J.A. Egdane, A.M. Ismail. 2013. Salinity tolerance, Na+ exclusion and allele mining of KT1;5 in Oryza sativa and O.glaberrima: Many sources, many genes, one mechanism? BMC Plant Biol. 13: 32.
  20. Reddy, I. N. B. L., B. Kim, I. Yoon, K. Kim, T. Kwon. 2017. Salt tolerance in rice: focus on mechanisms and approaches. Rice Sci. 24(3): 123–144.
  21. Roy, S. J, S. Negrao, M. Tester. 2014. Salt resistant crop plants. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 26: 115–124.
  22. Shrivastava, P., and R. Kumar. 2015. Soil salinity: a serious environmental issue and plant growth promoting bacteria as one of the tools for its alleviation. Saudi J. Boil. Sci. 22(2): 123-131.
  23. Tiwari, J. K., N. Mehta, M.K. Singh, and P.S. Tiwari. 2012. Screening of tomato genotypes against bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum) under field condition for Chhattisgarh. Global J. Bio-Sci. and Biotechnol. 1(2): 168-170
  24. USDA. 2008. Research Databases Bibliography on Salt Tolerance. George E. Brown, Jr. Salinity Lab. US Dep. Agric., Agric. Res. Serv. Riverside, CA.
  25. Utama, M.Z.H. 2010. Effect of NaCl-stress on metabolism of NO3-, NH4+ and NO2- at several rice varieties. J. Trop Soils 15(3): 189-194.
  26. Wassmann, R., S.V.K. Jagadish, S. Heuer, A. Ismail, E. Redona, R. Serraj, R.K. Singh, G. Howell, H. Pathak, K. Sumfleth. 2009. Chapter 2 Climate Change Affecting Rice Production: The Physiological and Agronomic Basis for Possible Adaptation Strategies, in: L. S. Donald (Ed.), Advances in Agronomy, Academic Press. pp. 59-122.