Main Article Content


The main objective is to investigate the effect of DCfCaP-substitute concentrate on growth performance and feed efficiency in Thai native x Lowline Angus crossbred cattle. The average initial body weight (IBW) was assigned 97±18.5 kg and 1-year age, 12 females of  Thai native x Lowline Angus crossbred cattle. Dietary treatments were designed in a completely randomized design (CRD) to receive three feeding treatments, four replications per treatment with one cow per replicate. The feeding treatments were administered as follows: T1=100% concentrate + 0% DCfCaP (control), T2=67% concentrate + 33% DCfCaP, and T3= 33% concentrate + 67% DCfCaP on dry matter basis (DM). The results indeed showed that the initial body weight (IBW) and final body weight (FBW) were non-significantly different (P>0.05). The average daily gain (ADG) in T1 and T2 was 0.53 kg/day and 0.48 kg/day, and representative superscripts were in the same row, but there were differences in T3 was  0.05 kg/day (P<0.001). T1 used feed intake higher than T2 and T3 (P=0.003). So far, the feed conversion ratio (FCR) in groups T1 and T2 were non-different except T3 (P<0.001). In conclusion, DCfCaP could substitute concentrate up to 33% in the diet without being effective in Thai native x Lowline Angus crossbred cattle. Therefore, DCfCaP is recommended because it is an alternative source of animal feed and could contribute to controlling environmental contamination. So DCfCaP is recommended to supply to cattle.


growth performance nutrient intake cassava top cassava pulp

Article Details


  1. Boonnop, K., Wanapat, M., Nontaso, N., & Wanapat, S. (2009). Enriching nutritive value of cassava root by yeast fermentation. Scientia Agricola, 66, 629–633.
  2. Brown, M.S., Ponce, C.H., & Pulikanti, R. (2006). Adaptation of beef cattle to high-concentrate diets: performance and ruminal metabolism. Journal of animal science, 84 Suppl, 25–33.
  3. Cherdthong, A., & Supapong, C. (2019). Improving the nutritive value of cassava bioethanol waste using fermented yeast as a partial replacement of protein source in dairy calf ration. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 51, 2139–2144.
  4. Chuelong, S., Siriuthane, T., Polsit, K., Ittharat, S., Koatdoke, U., Cherdthong, A., & Khampa, S. (2011). Supplementation levels of palm oil in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) culture fermented cassava pulp on rumen fermentation and average daily gain in crossbred native cattle. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 10, 1115–1120.
  5. Dagaew, G., Wongtangtintharn, S., Suntara, C., Prachumchai, R., Wanapat, M., & Cherdthong, A. (2022). Feed utilization efficiency and ruminal metabolites in beef cattle fed with cassava pulp fermented yeast waste replacement soybean meal. Scientific Reports, 12, 1–7 (Nature Publishing Group UK).
  6. Desnoyers, M., Duvaux-Ponter, C., Rigalma, K., Roussel, S., Martin, O., & Giger-Reverdin, S. (2008). Effect of concentrate percentage on ruminal pH and time-budget in dairy goats. Animal, 2, 1802–1808.
  7. Faccio-Demarco, C., Mumbach, T., Oliveira-de-Freitas, V., Fraga e Silva-Raimondo, R., Medeiros-Gonçalves, F., Nunes-Corrêa, M., Burkert-Del Pino, F.A., Mendonça-Nunes-Ribeiro Filho, H., & Cassal-Brauner, C. (2019). Effect of yeast products supplementation during transition period on metabolic profile and milk production in dairy cows. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 51, 2193–2201.
  8. Ghimire, A., Sen, R., & Annachhatre, A.P. (2015). Biosolid Management Options in Cassava Starch Industries of Thailand: Present Practice and Future Possibilities Procedia. Chemistry, 14, 66–75.
  9. Gunawan, S., Widjaja, T., Zullaikah, S., Ernawati, L., Istianah, N., Aparamarta, H.W., & Prasetyoko, D. (2015). Effect of fermenting cassava with Lactobacillus plantarum, Saccharomyces cereviseae, and Rhizopus oryzae on the chemical composition of their flour. International Food Research Journal, 22, 1280–1287.
  10. Hawashi, M., Altway, A., Widjaja, T., & Gunawan, S. (2019). Optimization of process conditions for tannin content reduction in cassava leaves during solid state fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Heliyon, 5, e02298 (Elsevier Ltd).
  11. Jiang, Y., Dai, P., Dai, Q., Ma, J., Wang, Z., Hu, R., Zou, H., Peng, Q., Wang, L., & Xue, B. (2022). Effects of the higher concentrate ratio on the production performance, ruminal fermentation, and morphological structure in male cattle-yaks. Veterinary Medicine and Science, 8, 771–780.
  12. Keaokliang, O., Kawashima, T., Angthong, W., Suzuki, T., Narmseelee, R. (2018). Chemical composition and nutritive values of cassava pulp for cattle. Animal Science Journal, 89, 1120–1128.
  13. Kelly, A.K., McGee, M., Crews, D.H., Lynch, C.O., Wylie, A.R., Evans, R.D., & Kenny, D.A. (2011). Relationship between body measurements, metabolic hormones, metabolites and residual feed intake in performancetested pedigree beef bulls. Livestock Science, 135, 8–16 (Elsevier B.V.).
  14. Khejornsart, P., Meenongyai, W., & Juntanam, T. (2022). Cassava pulp added to fermented total mixed rations increased tropical sheep’s nutrient utilization, rumen ecology, and microbial protein synthesis. Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research, 9, 754.
  15. Kleiber, M. (1947). Reviews 1947. Physiological Reviews, 27, 511–541.
  16. Li, M., Zi, X., Zhou, H., Lv, R., Tang, J., & Cai, Y. (2019). Silage fermentation and ruminal degradation of cassava foliage prepared with microbial additive. AMB Express, 9 (Springer Berlin Heidelberg).
  17. Morgan, N.K., Choct, M. (2016). Cassava: Nutrient composition and nutritive value in poultry diets. Animal Nutrition, 2, 253–261 (Elsevier Ltd).
  18. Morm, S., Kong, S., Iv, S. (2021). Effect of different rates of cassava leaves hay on growth performance and fecal parasitic eggs in gastro- intestinal cattle. Asian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Safety, 2021, 24–27.
  19. Morm, S., Lunpha, A., Pilajun, R., & Cherdthong, A. (2023). Gas Kinetics , Rumen Characteristics , and In Vitro Degradability of Varied Levels of Dried and Fresh Cassava Leaf Top Fermented with Cassava Pulp. Tropical animal Science Journal, 46(1): 105–111.
  20. Morm, S., Lunpha, A., Pilajun, R., Cherdthong, A. (2022). Review : Toxicity Volatiles of Dried Techniques for Detoxification in Cassava Leave ( Manihot esculenta Crantz ). International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Science, 6(6): 1–6.
  21. Norrapoke, T., Wanapat, M., Cherdthong, A., Kang, S., Phesatcha, K.,Pongjongmit, T. (2018). Improvement of nutritive value of cassava pulp and in vitro fermentation and microbial population by urea and molasses supplementation. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 46, 242–247.
  22. Oni, A.O., Sowande, O.S., Oni, O.O., Aderinboye, R.Y., Dele, P.A., Ojo, V.O.A., Arigbede, O.M., Onwuka, C.F.I. (2014). Effect of additives on fermentation of cassava leaf silage and ruminal fluid of west african dwarf goats. Archivos de Zootecnia, 63, 449–459.
  23. Oresegun, A., Fagbenro, O.A., Ilona, P., Bernard, E. (2016). Nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of cassava leaf protein concentrate from six cassava varieties for use in aqua feed. Cogent Food and Agriculture, 2, 1–6.
  24. Phesatcha, K., Phesatcha, B., Wanapat, M., Cherdthong, A. (2022). The effect of yeast and roughage concentrate ratio on ruminal ph and protozoal population in Thai native beef cattle. Animals, 12, 1–11.
  25. Polyorach, S., Wanapat, M., Cherdthong, A. (2014). Influence of yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP) and roughage to concentrate ratio on ruminal fermentation and microorganisms using in vitro gas production technique. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 27, 36–45.
  26. Pongsub, S., Suntara, C., Khota, W., Boontiam, W., Cherdthong, A. (2022). The Chemical Composition , Fermentation End-Product of Silage , and Aerobic Stability of Cassava Pulp Fermented with Lactobacillus casei TH14 and Additives. Veterinary Science, 9(11), 617.
  27. Sommai, S., Ampapon, T., Mapato, C., Totakul, P., Viennasay, B., Matra, M., Wanapat, M. (2020). Replacing soybean meal with yeast-fermented cassava pulp (YFCP) on feed intake, nutrient digestibilities, rumen microorganism, fermentation, and N-balance in Thai native beef cattle. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 52, 2035–2041.
  28. Suriyapha, C., Cherdthong, A., Suntara, C. and Polyorach, S., 2021. Utilization of yeast waste fermented citric waste as a protein source to replace soybean meal and various roughage to concentrate ratios on in vitro rumen fermentation, gas kinetic, and feed digestion. Fermentation, 7, 1–14.
  29. Thang, C.M., Ledin, I., Bertilsson, J. (2010). Effect of using cassava products to vary the level of energy and protein in the diet on growth and digestibility in cattle. Livestock Science, 128, 166–172.
  30. Wanapat, M. (2003). Manipulation of cassava cultivation and utilization to improve protein to energy biomass for livestock feeding in the tropics. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 16, 463–472.