Main Article Content


As an activity of transferring a message from a source text to a target text, translation certainly involves several processes. Different processes require certain amount of time allocation depending on the translator’s cognitive load. Studying translation process is essential to reveal what actually happened while a translator was doing his/her tasks, contributing to a better translation product. This study aimed at finding out the time management and the translation method in translating a scientific article by a professional translator. The scientific article is composed of more than five thousand words; thus, the researcher reduced the limit of the words to one thousand words to avoid the technical problems. This qualitative study used a case study as the research method. The participant of this research was a professional translator from the Association of Indonesian Translator (HPI). The data were collected using a keyboard logging program (Translog-II) and a screen recording tool (OBS Studio). Based on the data analysis it was found that the professional translator (i) distributed more time in the drafting stage; and (ii) applied the linear and inline methods during the translation process. It was found that the professional translator focused translating on word by word, phrase by phrase, and paragraph by paragraph. It is concluded that the activities in each stage of translation process contributes to the result of translation.


Translation process time distribution translation tasks Translog-II screen recording tool

Article Details

Author Biographies

Amsaldi Wahyu Kristian Sinulingga, Universitas Sumatera Utara

English Post-Graduate Program, Faculty of Cultural Sciences

Rudy Sofyan, Universitas Sumatera Utara

English Language and Literature Department, Faculty of Cultural Sciences

Umar Mono, Universitas Sumatera Utara

English Language and Literature Department, Faculty of Cultural Sciences

How to Cite
Sinulingga, A. W. K., Sofyan, R., & Mono, U. (2023). Time management and translation method in translating a scientific article: A case study on a professional translator. JOALL (Journal of Applied Linguistics and Literature), 8(1), 213–226.


  1. Arono, & Nadrah. (2019). Students’ difficulties in translating English text. JOALL (Journal of Applied Linguistics and Literature), 4(1), 88-99.
  2. Batubara, L. S., Lubis S, Muchtar M, & Sinar S. (2018). Translation of mangkobar text by novice translators and distribution of time and translation tasks in their translation process: An analysis. International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies, 6(2), 20-28.
  3. Brunette, L. (2000). Towards a terminology for translation quality assessment. The Translator, 6(2), 169-182.
  4. Carl, M., Lacruz, L., Yamada, M. & Aizawa, A. (2016). Measuring the translation process. Proceedings of the NLP 2016, Language Processing Society 22nd Annual Meeting, Sendai (Japan), March 7-10, pp. 957-960.
  5. Cresswell, J. W. (2011). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Fourth Edition. Boston: Pearson.
  6. Dimitrova, E. B. (2010). Translation process. In Y. Gambier & L. V. Doorslaer (Eds.), Handbook of translation studies (p. 406) Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: Benjamins.
  7. Elisis, R. (2002). Second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  8. Gerring, J. (2007). Case study research: Principles and practices. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  9. Hansen, G. (2006). Retrospection methods in translator training and translation research. Journal of Specialised Translation, 1(5), 1-41.
  10. Holmes, J. S. (1988). The name and nature of translation studies, In L. Venuti (Ed.), The translation studies reader (pp. 172-185). New York: Routledge.
  11. Immonen, S. (2011). Unravelling the processing units of translation. Across Languages and Cultures, 12(2), 235-257.
  12. Immonen, S. & Makisalo, J. (2010). Pauses reflecting the processing of syntactic units in monolingual text production and translation. Hermes, 44, 45-61.
  13. Jääskeläinen, R. (2012). Translation psychology. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamin.
  14. Jakobsen, A. L. (1999). Logging target text production with Translog. In G. Hansen (Ed.), Probing the process in translation: Methods and results (pp. 9-20). Copenhagen: Samfundslitteratur.
  15. Jakobsen, A. L. (2003). Effects of think aloud on translation speed, revision and segmentation. In F. Alves (Ed.), Triangulating translation: perspectives in process-oriented research (pp. 69-93). Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  16. Jakobsen, A. L. (2011). Tracking translators’ keystrokes and eye movements with Translog. In C. Alvstad, A. Hild, & E. Tiselius (Eds.), Methods and strategies of process research (pp. 37-55). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  17. Jakobsen, A. L., &Schou. (1999). Logging target text production with translog. In G. Hansen (ed), Probing the process in translation: methods and results (pp. 1-36). Copenhagen: Sumfundslitteratur.
  18. Kourouni, K. (2012). Translating under time constraints in an undergraduate context: A study of students’ products, processes and learning styles (Unpublished Doctoral Thesis). Tarragona: UniversitatRovira I Virgili.
  19. Kumpulainen, M. (2015). On the operationalisation of ‘pauses’ in translation process research. Translation & Interpreting, 7(1), 47-58.
  20. Lauffer, S. (2002). The translation process: An analysis of observational methodology. Cadernos de traduçao, 2(10), 59-74.
  21. Meliana, S. (2020). Eksistensi tradisi lisan cakap lumat dalam upacara adat perkawinan Karo. Litera, 19(1), 157.
  22. Mossop, B. (2014). Revising and editing for translators. Oxon & New York: Routledge.
  23. Nord, C. (1991). Text analysis in translation: Theory, methodology, and didactic application of a model for translation-oriented text analysis. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
  24. O’Brien, S. (2006). Pauses as indicators of cognitive effort in post-editing machine translation output. Across Languages and Cultures, 7(1), 1-21.
  25. Pym, A. (2011). What technology does to translating. Translation & Interpreting, 3(1), 1-9.
  26. Rosa, R N. (2017). An analysis on translation and translating: SFL language metafunctions in the translation of student and professional translators (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). Medan: Universitas Sumatera Utara.
  27. Rosa, R. N., Sinar, T. S., Ibrahim-Bell, Z., & Setia, E. (2017). Metafunctional shifts in the translation of students and professional translators. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research, 35(2), 85-101.
  28. Rosa, R. N., Sinar, T. S., Ibrahim-Bell, Z., & Setia, E. (2018). Pauses by student and professional translators in translation process. International Journal of Comparative Literature & Translation Studies, 6(1), 18-28.
  29. Saraswati, R. (2014). The translation strategies in translating Balinese cultural words into English. Journal of English Language and Culture, 4(2), 110.
  30. Sofyan, R., &Tarigan, B. (2017). Online resource management in self-correction and translation quality. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research. 35(2), 212-224.
  31. Vidhiasi, D.M. &Haryani. (2020). The implementation of grammarly in error analysis. Jurnal Sains dan Teknologi MARITIM, 21(1), 16-22.