Main Article Content


For animal reproduction, artificial insemination has become a need. Semen preservation has been crucial in artificial insemination as it can determine the success of fertilization and pregnancy. Semen extenders have been critical in prolonging the usability of semen while also retaining its viability, motility, and integrity so that it can be used to fertilize female animals. Due to its nutritional and chemical qualities that can create an environment for spermatozoa to survive and thrive before insemination, coconut water has been the focus of various research addressing its effect on semen preservation. These studies have shown that coconut water has the potential to be an effective semen extender due to its ability to protect the semen during cooling and cryopreservation. Coconut water also includes nutrients (water, sugars, proteins, salts, and vitamins) to help spermatozoa thrive in a healthy environment. However, its performance lags that of commercial extenders, but it can be a less expensive alternative or replacement when commercial extenders are unavailable.


coconut water semen extender semen preservation

Article Details

How to Cite
Odrada, P. M. S., Purnamasari, L., & Cruz, J. F. D. (2023). The Effects of Water-Based Coconut Extenders on Semen Preservation : A review. Jurnal Sain Peternakan Indonesia, 18(1), 20–26.


  1. Ahmadip, S, R Bashirip, A Ghadiri-Anarip, and A Nadjarzadehp. 2016. Antioxidant supplements and semen parameters: An evidence based review. International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine, 14(12), 729.
  2. Aji, RN, A Panjono Agus, BP Widyobroto, T Hartatik, IGS Budisatria, A Ismaya Fathoni, S Kumala, and S Bintara. 2019. The effect of Andromed® and coconut water + 20% egg yolk as diluent on semen motility of Belgian Blue cattle. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 387(1), 012127.
  3. Al-Daraji, H. 2014. Impact of extender supplementation with tomato juice on semen quality of chicken semen during liquid storage. International journal of biological sciences. 1. 19-23.
  4. Aragao, CPM, SP Maia, JMM Cavalcante, CC Campello, CC de M Salgueiro, and JF Nunes. 2013. Cryopreservation effects on morphology and morphometry of goat spermatozoa preserved on media based on powdered coconut water (ACP-101c). Ciência Animal, 23(2), 16–28.
  5. Banday, MN, FA Lone, F Rasool, M Rashid, and A Shikari. 2017. Use of antioxidants reduce lipid peroxidation and improve quality of crossbred ram sperm during its cryopreservation. Cryobiology, 74, 25–30.
  6. Barbosa B de S, RG Izzo, HVR Silva, TGP Nunes, BF Brito, TFP da Silva, and LDM Silva. 2020. Recovery and cryopreservation of epididymal sperm from domestic cat using powdered coconut water (ACP-117c) and TRIS extenders. Cryobiology, 92, 103–108.
  7. Berek, FL, AA Dethan, and PK Tahuk. 2021. The Effect of Long Shelf Life of Duroc Pig Male Semen Diluted Using Tris-Egg Yolk-Young Coconut Water on The Value of Viability, Abnormality and pH. Journal of Tropical Animal Science and Technology, 3(2), 108–120.
  8. Boonnumma, S, S Chaisawadi, and S Suwanyuen. 2014. Freeze-dried coconut water powder processing for natural health drink. Acta Horticulturae, 1023, 91–94.
  9. Brasileiro, LS, LGTM Segabinazzi, E Menezes, CC Salgueiro, G Novello, VFdaC Scheeren, MA Alvarenga, and JF Nunes. 2019. Coconut Water as an Extender Component for Cooled Equine Sperm. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 78, 69–73.
  10. Bustani, GS, and FH Baiee. 2021. Semen extenders: An evaluative overview of preservative mechanisms of semen and semen extenders. Veterinary World, 14(5), 1220.
  11. Cardoso, RCS, AR Silva, and LDM Silva. 2005. Use of the powdered coconut water (ACP-106 ®) for cryopreservation of canine spermatozoa. Animal Reproduction, 2(4), 257–262.
  12. Cardoso, RCS, AR Silva, LDM da Silva, VH Chirinéa, FF Souza, and MD Lopes. 2007. Evaluation of Fertilizing Potential of Frozen-thawed dog Spermatozoa Diluted in ACP-106® using an In Vitro Sperm–Oocyte Interaction Assay. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 42(1), 11–16.
  13. Cardoso, RDCS, AR Silva, DC Uchoa, and LDM da Silva. 2003. Cryopreservation of canine semen using a coconut water extender with egg yolk and three different glycerol concentrations. Theriogenology, 59(3–4), 743–751.
  14. de Oliveira, RV, JF Nunes, CC Salgueiro, JMM Cavalcante, AA de A Moura, and AA Araujo. 2009. Morphologic evaluation of goat spermatozoa diluted and frozen in media based on powder coconut water (PCW-101) or TRIS, stained by eosin-nigrosin and bromophenol blue. Ciência Animal Brasileira, 10(3), 862–869.
  15. DebMandal, M, and S Mandal. 2011. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: Arecaceae): In health promotion and disease prevention. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 4(3), 241–247.
  16. Durrant BS. 2009. The importance and potential of artificial insemination in CANDES (companion animals, non-domestic, endangered species). Theriogenology, 71(1), 113–122.
  17. El-Sheshtawy, RI, WS El-Nattat, and GAD Ali. 2017. Cryopreservation of cattle semen using coconut water extender with different glycerol concentrations. Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction, 6(6), 279–282.
  18. Esguerra, P, J Undine, P Quimio, G Dichoso, C Alilie, L Junsay, V Magpantay, and P Sangel. 2020. Coconut Water with Either Tomato Juice or Garlic Extract as Extender Components for Paraoakan Native Chicken Semen at Different Storage Temperatures. Philippine Journal of Science. 149. 121-131.
  19. Freshman, JL. 2002. Semen collection and evaluation. Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice, 17(3), 104–107.
  20. Hegazy, MM, AEAM Sakr, AH Abd El-Aziz, and AA Swelum. 2021. Effect of adding different concentrations of L-arginine to Tris-yolk extender on the quality of sub-fertile ejaculates in buffalo. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 53(1).
  21. Jimoh, OA. 2020. Potential of coconut water to enhance fresh semen quality and fertility in rabbits. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 52(1), 249–255.
  22. Lima, DBC, TFP Silva, A Aquino Cortez, JN Pinto, FF Magalhães, BN Caldini, and LDM Silva. 2016. Recovery of sperm after epididymal refrigeration from domestic cats using ACP-117c and Tris extenders. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, 68(4), 873–881.
  23. Lima, EBC, CNS Sousa, LN Meneses, NC Ximenes, MA Santos Júnior, GS Vasconcelos, NBC Lima, MCA Patrocínio, D Macedo, and SMM Vasconcelos. 2015. Cocos nucifera (L.) (Arecaceae): A phytochemical and pharmacological review. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 48(11), 953.
  24. London, KT, BW Christensen, CJ Scott, K Klooster, PH Kass, GA Dujovne, and SA Meyers. 2017. The Effects of an Oxygen Scavenger and Coconut Water on Equine Sperm Cryopreservation. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 58, 51–57.
  25. Love, CC. 2016. Modern Techniques for Semen Evaluation. The Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice, 32(3), 531–546.
  26. Morell, J. 2011. Artificial Insemination: Current and Future Trends. In Artificial Insemination in Farm Animals. InTech.
  27. Muhammad, D, N Isnaini, A Yekti, Kuswati, M Luthfi, LA Sunarto, and T Susilawati. 2019. The Sperm Motility of Ongole Crossbreed Cattle in Coconut Water Based Diluents During Storage at 3-5°C. International Research Journal of Advanced Engineering and Science, 4(1), 81–84.
  28. Nunes, JF and CCM Salgueiro. 2011. Strategies to improve the reproductive efficiency of goats in Brazil. Small Ruminant Research, 98(1–3), 176–184.
  29. Oliveira, RV, JF Nunes, CCM Salgueiro, JMM Cavalcante, OO Brasil, and AAAN Moura. 2011. Evaluation of goat spermatozoa frozen in media based on powder coconut water media based (ACP-101®) or TRIS. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, 63(6), 1295–1302.
  30. Petrunkina, AM, D Waberski, AR Günzel-Apel, and E Töpfer-Petersen. 2007. Determinants of sperm quality and fertility in domestic species. Reproduction, 134(1), 3–17.
  31. Ponglowhapan, S, B Essén-Gustavsson, and C Linde Forsberg. 2004. Influence of glucose and fructose in the extender during long-term storage of chilled canine semen. Theriogenology, 62(8), 1498–1517.
  32. Prades, A, M Dornier, N Diop, and JP Pain. 2012. Coconut water uses, composition and properties: a review. Fruits, 67(2), 87–107.
  33. Rochmi, SE and MS Sofyan. 2019. A diluent containing coconut water, fructose, and chicken egg yolk increases rooster sperm quality at 5°C. Veterinary World, 12(7), 1116.
  34. Rodriguez, J. 2016. Effectiveness of Coconut Water as Boar Semen Extender. Prism. 21. 11-17.
  35. Saacke, RG. 1983. Semen quality in relation to semen preservation. Journal of Dairy Science, 66(12), 2635–2644.
  36. Santoso, U, K K-bo, T Ota, T Tadokorob, and A Maekawab. 1996. Nutrient composition of kopyor coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.). Food Chemistry, 51(2), 299–304.
  37. Silva, MA, GCX Peixoto, G Lima., JAB Bezerra, LB Campos, ALC Paiva, VV Paula, and AR Silva. 2012. Cryopreservation of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) semen using a powdered coconut water (ACP-116c) based extender plus various concentrations of egg yolk and glycerol. Theriogenology, 78(3), 605–611.
  38. Tanga, BM, AY Qamar, S Raza, S Bang, X Fang, K Yoon, and J Cho. 2021. Semen evaluation: methodological advancements in sperm quality-specific fertility assessment - A review. Animal Bioscience, 34(8), 1253–1270.
  39. Toniolli, R, GH Toniollo, PH Franceschini, and FMAC Morato. 2010. Use of powder coconut water as extender (ACP-103®) for boar semen longer preservation: in vitro and in vivo evaluations. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, 62(5), 1072–1079.
  40. Trejo, CA, VVM Meza, EC Antonio, RJ Cotera, and CM Antonio-Cisneros. 2013. Coconut water (Cocus nucifera) as a diluent for rabbit fresh semen in artificial insemination. In Archivos de Zootecnia (Vol. 62, Issue 238, pp. 299–302). Universidad de Cordoba,Servicio de Publicaciones.
  41. Watson, PF. 1995. Recent developments and concepts in the cryopreservation of spermatozoa and the assessment of their post-thawing function. Reproduction, Fertility, and Development, 7(4), 871–891.
  42. Wynn, T. 2017. Nutrition studies on mature and immature coconut meat and coconut water. Yadanabon University Research Journal, 8(1).
  43. Yong, JWH, L Ge, YF Ng, and SN Tan. 2009. The chemical composition and biological properties of coconut (Cocos Nucifera L.) water. Molecules, 14(12), 5144–5164.
  44. Zoccolaro, L, F Morato, RP de Arruda, and EC Carvalho Celeghini. 2013. The Importance of Semen Quality in AI Programs and Advances in Laboratory Analyses for Semen Characteristics Assessment. In Success in Artificial Insemination - Quality of Semen and Diagnostics Employed. InTech.
  45. Zulaikhah, ST. 2019. Health Benefits of Tender Coconut Water (TCW). International Journal Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 10(2), 474–480