Main Article Content


The study aims to know the effect of different starters on the quality production of organic fertilizer. Three kinds of starters, EM-4 (P1), BM-4 (P2), and Petroganic (P3), were used in this study. The quality of organic fertilizer with a starter for the 28th day of composting was evaluated by physical and chemical parameters in triplicates. Based on the results, we showed the physical parameters of treatment compost P1, P2, and P3 are blackish brown, didn’t smell of stool, and are crumbly textured. The chemical parameters showed the content of C-organic from the treatments was 42.51%, 39.19%, and 35.74%, respectively, at the end of the composting process, while total nitrogen content was 4.71%, 9.47%, and 5.77%. The C/N ratio of each treatment, P1, P2, and P3, was 9.02, 4.17, and 6.20, while the total phosphor content was 0.092%, 0.15%, and 0.13%, respectively. Next, the total potassium content was 0.69%, 0.79%, and 0.77%, respectively, at the end of the composting process. The addition of different types of starters did not affect physical and chemical quality. In conclusion, EM-4, BM-4, and Petroganik can be used as alternative starters in producing organic fertilizer.


EM-4 BM-4 Organic fertilizer Petroganik Starter

Article Details

How to Cite
Pastawan, V., Baliarti, E., Maulana, H., & Fitriyanto, N. A. (2023). Physical and Chemical Quality of Cow Feces Organic Fertilizer Produced by the Addition of Different Starters. Jurnal Sain Peternakan Indonesia, 18(1), 1–7.


  1. Arifandi, N., F. Zuhro., dan H.U. Hasanah. 2017. Karakterisasi kandungan unsur hara pupuk organik hewani sesuai dengan SNI-2011. Prosiding Seminar Nasional SIMBIOSIS II, pp 165-177.
  2. Belda R.M., D. Mendoza-Hernandez, F. Fornes. 2013. Nutrient-rich compost versus nutrient-poor vermicompost as growth media for ornamental-plant production. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci, 176: 827–835.
  3. Bolan N.S., and M.J. Hedley. 2005. Role of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycles in soil acidification. In: Rengal Z (ed) Handbook of soil acidity. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 29–56.
  4. Burrell, P.C., C.M. Phalen, and T.A. Hovanec. 2001. Identification of bacteria responsible for ammonia oxidation in freshwater aquaria. Applied Environ. Microbiol., 67: 5791-5800.
  5. Cahyono, A., E. Faridah., D. Wulandari, dan B. H. Purwanto. 2014. Peran mikroba starter dalam dekomposisi kotoran ternak dan perbaikan kualitas pupuk kandang. Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan, vol. 21, no. 2: 179-187.
  6. Dimkpa, C.O., J. Fugice, U. Singh, and T.D. Lewis. 2020. Development of fertilizers for enhanced nitrogen use efficiency–Trends and perspectives. Science of the Total Environment, 731: 139113.
  7. Fornes F., D. Mendoza-Hernandez, R. Garcia-de-la-Fuente, M. Abad, R.M. Belda. 2012. Composting versus vermicomposting: a comparative study of organic matter evolution through straight and combined processes. Bioresour Technol 118: 296–305.
  8. Gericke, D., L. Bornemann, H. Kage, and A. Pacholski. 2012. Modelling ammonia losses after field application of biogas slurry in energy crop rotations. Water Air Soil Pollut. 223(1): 29-47.
  9. Hansgate, A.M., P.D. Schloss, A.G. Hay, and L.P. Walker. 2005. Molecular characterization of fungal community dynamics in the initial stages of composting. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 51: 209–214.
  10. Haynes, R.J., and Y.F. Zhou. 2016. Comparison of the chemical, physical and microbial properties of composts produced by conventional composting or vermicomposting using the same feedstocks. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2(11): 10763-10772.
  11. Le Goff, O., V. Bru‐Adan, H. Bacheley, J.J. Godon, N. and Wéry. 2010. The microbial signature of aerosols produced during the thermophilic phase of composting. Journal of applied microbiology, 108(1): 325-340.
  12. Mapanda, F., M. Wuta, J. Nyamangara, and R.M. Rees. 2011. Effects of organic and mineral fertilizer nitrogen on greenhouse gas emissions and plant-captured carbon under maize cropping in Zimbabwe. Plant and soil, 343: 67-81.
  13. Patterson, P.H., and Adrizal. 2005. Management strategies to reduce air emissions: Emphasis-dust and ammonia. J. Applied Poult. Res., 14: 638-650.
  14. Patterson, P.H., A. Adrizal, R.M. Hulet, R.M. Bates, and C.A.B. Myers. 2008. Vegetative buffers for fan emissions from poultry farms: 1. Temperature and foliar nitrogen. J. Environ. Sci. Health Part B: Pestic. Food Contam. Agric. Wastes, 43: 199-204.
  15. Ye, R.W. and S.M. Thomas, 2001. Microbial nitrogen cycles: Physiology, genomics and applications. Curr. Opin. Microbiol., 4: 307-312.
  16. Swayne, D.A., W. Yang, A.A. Voinov, A. Rizzoli, and T. Filatova, 2010. Effective Microorganisms (EM) technology for water quality restoration and potential for sustainable water resources and management. Proceedings of the International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software, July 5-8, 2010, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
  17. Standar Nasional Indonesia. 2004. Spesifikasi Pupuk Kompos dari Sampah Organik Domestik. Badan Standarisasi Nasional.
  18. Tagoe, S.O., T. Horiuchi, and T. Matsui. 2008. Effects of carbonized and dried chicken manures on the growth, yield, and N content of soybean. Plant Soil. 306(1-2): 211-220.
  19. Tiquia, S.M., H.C. Wan, and N.F. Tam. 2002. Microbial population dynamics and enzyme activities during composting. Compost Sci. Util. 10(2): 150-161.