Main Article Content


A mixture of legumes with grasses has been shown to improve silage's physical and nutritional qualities. This study assessed the chemical composition and physical characteristics of Cynodon dactylon (CD) when mixed with different proportions of Gliricidia sepium (GS). Chopped and wilted leaves of CD and GS were mixed in the following combinations:  P1: 0% GS + 78% CD; P2: 28% GS + 50% CD; P3: 39% GS + 39% CD; P4: 50% GS + 28% CD; P5: 78% GS + 0% CD. Each combination is enriched with 10% rice bran (RB), 10% Corn Feed (CF) and 2% molasses. A 750 g of the fresh materials were compressed into plastic jar silos and kept for 21 days. The physical characteristics and the loss of chemical composition of silage were analyzed descriptively. pH value and the chemical composition data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) in a randomized complete design with five replications. Considering all physical and chemical characteristics, GS and CD can be combined as silage material. However, the study recommends including 28-39% GS (P2 and P3) as the most suitable in response to pH value, color, aroma, texture, and presence of fungus.


Cynodon dactylon Gliricidia sepium Silage Bermudagrass Gamal

Article Details

How to Cite
Hutabarat, A. L. R., Lestari, W. M., Ali, A. M., & Sabina, P. (2023). Physicochemical Quality of Total Mixed Ration Silages Based on Cynodon dactylon and Gliricidia sepium. Jurnal Sain Peternakan Indonesia, 18(4), 261–267.


  1. Ahmadi, F., Lee, Y.H., Lee, W.H., Oh, Y.K., Park, K., Kwak, W.S., 2019. Long-term anaerobic conservation of fruit and vegetable discards without or with moisture adjustment after aerobic preservation with sodium metabisulfite. Waste Manag. 87, 258–267.
  2. Ahmed, M.A., Jusoh, S., Alimon, A.R., Ebrahimi, M., Samsudin, A.A., 2018. Nutritive and Anti-Nutritive Evaluation of Kleinhovia hospita, Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium with Respect to Their Effects on in Vitro Rumen Fermentation and Gas Production. Trop. Anim. Sci. J. 41, 128–136.
  3. Al Koaik, F., El-Waziry, A.M., Khalil, A.I., Metwally, H., Al-Mahasneh, M.A., 2014. Evaluation of conocarpus (Conocarpus erectus) leaves and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L.) using chemical analysis and in vitro gas production technique. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci. 20, 824–829.
  4. Aregheore, E.M., Perera, D., 2004. Effects of Erythrina variegata, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala on dry matter intake and nutrient digestibility of maize stover, before and after spraying with molasses. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 111, 191–201.
  5. Arriola, K.G., Queiroz, O.C.M., Romero, J.J., Casper, D., Muniz, E., Hamie, J., Adesogan, A.T., 2015. Effect of microbial inoculants on the quality and aerobic stability of bermudagrass round-bale haylage. J. Dairy Sci. 98, 478–485.
  6. Avila, A.S. De, Zambom, M.A., Faccenda, A., Inês, E., 2017. Tifton 85 bermudagrass ( Cynodon sp .) silage as a replacement for Tifton 85 hay to feed lactating cows. Brazilian J. Anim. Sci. 46, 766–772.
  7. Barboza, N., Brenes-Guillén, L., Uribe, L., WingChing-Jones, R., 2023. Silage quality and bacterial diversity of silages inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes and Lacticaseibacillus paracasei_6714. Rev. Biol. Trop. 71.
  8. Bueno, A.V.I., Jobim, C.C., Rossi, R.M., Gritti, V.C., Leão, G.F.M., Tres, T.T., 2018. Wilting whole crop black oat with glyphosate for ensiling: Effects on nutritive, fermentative, and aerobic stability characteristics. Rev. Bras. Zootec. 47.
  9. Chaikong, C., Saenthaweesuk, N., Sadtagid, D., Intapim, Arunrung Khotakham, O., 2016. Local silage additive supplementation on fermentation efficiency and chemical components of leucaena silage. Livest. Res. Rural Dev. 29.
  10. Chen, J., Fan, S., Li, S., Cui, X., Amombo, E., Ji, M., Liu, X., Fu, J., 2023. Diversity analysis of agronomic and nutritional traits of hybrid offspring of forage bermudagrass. Front. Plant Sci. 14, 1–13.
  11. Goeser, J.P., Heuer, C.R., Crump, P.M., 2015. Forage fermentation product measures are related to dry matter loss through meta-analysis. Prof. Anim. Sci. 31, 137–145.
  12. Gouvêa, V.N., Vendramini, J.M.., Sollenberger, L.., Leite de Oliveira, F.., Dubeux Jr, J.C.., Moriel, P., Cecato, U., Soares Filho, C. V, Sanchez, J.M.., Yarborough, J.., Kuhawara, F., 2020. Inoculant effects on fermentation characteristics , nutritive value , and mycotoxin concentrations of bermudagrass silage. Crop. Forage, Turfgrass Manag. 1–7.
  13. Hapsari, S.S., Suryahadi, Sukria, H.A., 2016. Improvement on the nutritive quality of napier grass silage through inoculation of Lactobacillus plantarum and formic acid. Media Peternak. 39, 125–133.
  14. Hills, J.L., Wales, W.J., Dunshea, F.R., Garcia, S.C., Roche, J.R., 2015. Invited review: An evaluation of the likely effects of individualized feeding of concentrate supplements to pasture-based dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 98, 1363–1401.
  15. Kung, L., Shaver, R.D., Grant, R.J., Schmidt, R.J., 2018. Silage review: Interpretation of chemical, microbial, and organoleptic components of silages. J. Dairy Sci. 101, 4020–4033.
  16. Lima, R., Lourenço, M., Díaz, R.F., Castro, A., Fievez, V., 2010. Effect of combined ensiling of sorghum and soybean with or without molasses and lactobacilli on silage quality and in vitro rumen fermentation. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 155, 122–131.
  17. Miralestari, M., Sudarman, A., Suharti, S., Sofyan, A., 2021. Enhancing Physical-chemical Quality and Palatability of King Grass (Pennisetum Hyrid) Silage Treated by Combination of Water Soluble Carbohydrate and Legume Sources, in: 3rd International Conference of Computer, Environment, Agriculture, Social Science, Health Science, Engineering and Technolog. pp. 270–275.
  18. Rusdy, M., Yusuf, M., Ismartoyo, 2020. Utilization of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium as supplements by goats fed Panicum maximum basal diet. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 52, 541–545.
  19. Santana, J.C.S., Da Silva Morais, J.A., Dos Santos Difante, G., Ítavo, L.C.V., Gurgel, A.L.C., Da Silva Oliveira, V., Rodrigues, M.J.S.T., 2020. In vitro digestion characteristics of various combinations of elephant grass hay, gliricidia hay or silage, soybean meal and corn meal in rations for sheep. Trop. Grasslands-Forrajes Trop. 8, 147–152.
  20. Sarker, L.R., MRI, K., MM, R., 2018. Ensiling of Wet Rice Straw using Biogas Slurry and Molasses in Monsoon of Bangladesh. J. Anim. Sci. Livest. Prod. 02, 1–5.
  21. Sio, S., Bira, G.F., Batu, M.S., Pardosi, L., Mau, R.J., Klau, M.O., Hoar, J., 2022. Organoleptic Quality and Nutrition of Rice Straw Silage Utilizing Local Microorganisms of Cattle Rumen Fluid at Different Inoculum Levels. J. Adv. Vet. Res. 12, 36–41.
  22. Sudarman, A., Amalia, R.N., Astuti, D. apri, 2016. Effect of molasses, rice bran and tapioca flour as additives on the quality and digestibility of cassava leaf silage. J. ISSAAS 22.
  23. Tahuk, P.K., Bira, G.F., Taga, H., 2020. Physical Characteristics Analysis of Complete Silage Made of Sorghum Forage, King Grass and Natural Grass. IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 465, 8–14.
  24. Trisnadewi, A.A.A.S., Cakra, I.G.L.O., 2020. Physical Characteristics, Nutritional Qualities and In vitro Digestibility of Silage From Various Sources of Fiber. Pakistan J. Nutr. 19, 166–171.
  25. Xue, Z., Wang, Y., Yang, H., Li, S., Zhang, Y., 2020. Silage fermentation and in vitro degradation characteristics of orchardgrass and alfalfa intercrop mixtures as influenced by forage ratios and nitrogen fertilizing levels. Sustain. 12.