Main Article Content


Ivermectin termasuk dalam kelompok macrocyclic lactones dan saat ini merupakan salah satu antiparasit yang paling banyak digunakan di seluruh dunia karena sudah terbukti kemanjurannya. Ivermectin merupakan antiparasit spektrum luas spesies nematoda, termasuk sebagian besar larva, bentuk dewasa dan juga sangat efektif terhadap banyak parasit arthropoda hewan ternak. Semua ektoparasit rentan terhadap ivermectin, termasuk tungau, kutu, dan lalat penggigit. Keracunan yang disebabkan ivermectin jarang ditemukan pada hewan ternak. Keracunan biasanya disebabkan kesalahan manajemen pengobatan oleh peternak dalam bentuk pemberian ivermectin dengan dosis yang berlebihan. Gejala  keracunan berupa midriasis dan depresi, diikuti oleh ataksia, berbaring dan kematian. Terapi simtomatis maupun suportif dapat diberikan untuk menekan efek keracunan, namun pengobatan yang paling tepat adalah dengan pemberian antidota seperti picrotoxin atau physostigmine

Article Details

Author Biographies

Yanuartono Yanuartono, Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam, Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan Universitas Gadjah Mada

Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam, FKH-UGM

IVa/lektor kepala

S. Indarjulianto, Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam, Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan Universitas Gadjah Mada

Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam, FKH-UGM

A. Nururrozi, Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam, Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan Universitas Gadjah Mada

Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam, FKH-UGM

S. Raharjo, Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam, Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan Universitas Gadjah Mada

Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam, FKH-UGM

H. Purnamaningsih, Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam, Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan Universitas Gadjah Mada

Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam, FKH-UGM
How to Cite
Yanuartono, Y., Indarjulianto, S., Nururrozi, A., Raharjo, S., & Purnamaningsih, H. (2020). Penggunaan Antiparasit Ivermectin pada Ternak: Antara Manfaat dan Risiko. Jurnal Sain Peternakan Indonesia, 15(1), 110–123.


  1. Abbott, K.A., M.A. Taylor and L.A. Stubbings. 2009. SCOPS (Sustainable Control of Parasites in Sheep). A Technical Manual for Veterinary Surgeons and Advisers (third ed.), SCOPS, Malvern (2009) .26 Maret 2019
  2. Abdou, K.A. and A.A. Sharkawy. 2004. Some toxicological studies on ivermectin in goats. Proceeding of the 20 Annual meeting of the Egyptian Society of toxicology. February 18 – 19, 2004. Bibliotheca Alexandria.
  3. Ahammed, M., M. A., Ali, M. A., Ehsan and M. Mostafa. 2016. Efficacy of Ivermectin Against Gastrointestinal Nematodiasis and Ectoparasites in Crossbred Cattle in Bangladesh. Bangl. J. Vet. Med. 14 (2): 191-197
  4. Alvarez, L., A. Lifschitz, C. Entrocasso, J. Manazza, L. Mottier, B. Borda, G. Virkel and C. Lanusse. 2008. Evaluation of the interaction between ivermectin and albendazole following their combined use in lambs. J. vet. Pharmacol. Ther., 31(3): 230–239.
  5. Aranzazu, G.C., M. Ana, P.M. Sahagu´n, J.D. Liebana, L.Z. Martinez, M.S. Vega, J Juan and G. Vieitez. 2007. The Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of Ivermectin in Domestic Animal Species. Department of Biomedical Sciences. Veterinary Faculty, University of Leon. Spain.
  6. Bartram, D.J., D.M. Leathwick, M.A. Taylor, T. Geurden and S. J. Maeder. 2012. The role of combination anthelmintic formulations in the sustainable control of sheep nematodes. Veterinary Parasitology, 186 (3–4): 151-158
  7. Basudde, C. D. K 1989. Clinical signs and biochemical changes in calves caused by injection of ivermectin. Veterinary Quarterly, 11(1): 29-32.
  8. Bhikane, A. U., R. K. Jadhav and M. Anand. 2017. Successful Therapeutic Management of Ivermectin Toxicity in Deoni Calf. Dairy and Vet. Sci. J., 2(4):1-4.
  9. Bloom, R.A. and J. C. Matheson III. 1993. Environmental assessment of avermectins by the US Food and Drug Administration. Veterinary Parasitology 48 (1-4): 281–294.
  10. Bloomquist, J. R. 2003. Chloride channels as tools for developing selective insecticides. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol., 54(4): 145-156.
  11. Bousquet-Mélou, A., P. Jacquiet, H. Hoste, J. Clément, J.P.Bergeaud, M. Alvinerie and , P.L. Toutain. 2011. Licking behaviour induces partial anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin pour-on formulation in untreated cattle. Int J Parasitol., 41(5):563-569.
  12. Boyce, W.M., J.A. Miller, D.A. Jessup and R.K. Clark. 1992.Use of Ivermectin Implants for the Treatment of Psoroptic Scabies in Free-RangingBighorn Sheep. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 23 (2): 211-213
  13. Bruenisholz, H., J. Kupper, C.R. Muentener, A. Dally, T. Kraemer, H. Naegeli and C.C. Schwarzwald. 2012. Treatment of Ivermectin Overdose in a Miniature Shetland Pony Using Intravenous Administration of a Lipid Emulsion. J Vet Intern Med., 26 (2):407–411.
  14. Burrough, S. 1986. Ivermectin toxicity in horses. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 34 (8): 137-138.
  15. Campbell, W.C. and G.W. Benz. 1984. Ivermectin: a review of efficacy and safety. J Vet Pharmacol Ther., 7(1):1–16.
  16. Campbell, W.C. 2012. History of ivermectin and abamectin: with notes on the history of later macrocyclic lactone antiparasitic agents. Curr. Pharmacol. Biotechnol., 13(6):853–865.
  17. Campbell, W.C. 2016. Lessons from the History of Ivermectin and Other Antiparasitic Agents. Annu. Rev. Anim. Biosci., 4:1–14.
  18. Campbell, W.C., M.H., Fisher, E.O., Stapley, G. Albers-Scho¨nberg and T.A. Jacob. 1983. Ivermectin:a potent new antiparasitic agent. Science, 221(4613):823–828.
  19. Canton, C., L, Ceballos, C. Fiel, L. Moreno, P.D. Yagüez, G. Bernat, C. Lanusse and L. Alvarez. 2017. Resistant nematodes in cattle: Pharmaco-therapeutic assessment of the ivermectin- ricobendazole combination. Veterinary Parasitology. 234:40–48.
  20. Cerkvenik, V., D.Z. Doganoc, V. Skubic, W.M.J. Beek and H.J. Keukens. 2001. Thermal and long-term freezing stability of ivermectin residues in sheep milk. Eur Food Res Technol., 213 (1):72–76.
  21. Chhaiyaa, S.B., D.S., Mehtaa and B.C. Katariab. 2012. Ivermectin: pharmacology and therapeutic applications. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 1(3): 132-139.
  22. Chittrakarn, S., B. Janchawee, P. Ruangrut, S. Kansenalak, U. Chethanond, T. Kobasa and S. Thammapalo. 2009. Pharmacokinetics of ivermectin in cats receiving a single subcutaneous dose. Res. Vet. Sci., 86(3): 503-507.
  23. Chiu, S.H.L., M.L. Green, F.P. Baylis, D. Eline, A. Rosegay, H. Meriwether and T.A. Jacob. 1990. Absorption, tissue distribution, and excretion of tritium-labeled ivermectin in cattle, sheep, and rat. J. Agric.Food Chem., 38 (11): 2072– 2078.
  24. Clayton, L.A., J. Nelson, M.E. Payton, J.J. McDonnell, B.H. Rossi, K. King-Rahn and D. Woodburn. 2012. Clinical Signs, Management, and Outcome of Presumptive Ivermectin Overdose in a Group of Dendrobatid Frogs Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery. 22 (1-2):5-11.
  25. Cobb, R. and A. Boeckh. 2009. Moxidectin: a review of chemistry, pharmacokinetics and use in horses Parasites & Vectors. 2(Suppl 2): S5.
  26. Crandell, D.E. and G.L. Weinberg. 2009. Moxidectin toxicosis in a puppy successfully treated with intravenous lipids. J Vet Emerg Crit Care, 19(2):181–86.
  27. De Graef, J., E. Claerebout and P. Geldhof. 2013. Anthelmintic resistance of gastrointestinal cattle nematodes. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift, 82 (1): 113-122
  28. Dey, S., N.P. Kurade, K.L. Khurana and A. Dan. 2017. Clinicobiochemical changes in ivermectin toxicity in Doberman pinscher pups. J Parasit Dis., 41(2):580–583
  29. Entrocasso, C., L. Alvarez, J. Manazza, A.Lifschitz, B. Borda, G. Virkel, L. Mottier and C. Lanusse. 2008. Clinical efficacy assessment of the albendazole–ivermectin combination in lambs parasitized with resistant nematodes. Vet. Parasitol., 155 (3-4):249-256
  30. Foreyt, W.J. 1993. Efficacy of in-Feed Formulation Ivermectin Against Psoroptes Sp. in Bighorn Sheep. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 29(1):85-89.
  31. Geary, T.G. 2005. Ivermectin 20 years on: maturation of a wonder drug. Trends Parasitol., 21(11):530–532.
  32. Gonzalez, C.A., A.M. Sahagun Prieto, M.J. Diez, N. Fernandez, M. Sierra and J.J. Garcia. 2007. Bioavailability of a commercial formulation of ivermectin after subcutaneous administration to sheep. Am.J. Vet. Res., 68(1): 101-106.
  33. Gonzalez, C.A., A.M. Sahagun Prieto, M. Jose Diez Lie´bana, N.F. Mart?´nez, M.S. Vega and J.J. Vieitez. 2009.The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of ivermectin in domestic animal species. The Veterinary Journal. 179 (1): 25–37
  34. Hopper, K., J. Aldrich and S.C. Haskins. 2002. Ivermectin Toxicity in 17 Collies. J Vet Intern. Med., 16(1):89–94.
  35. Ilyas, N., M.M. Hossain, M.J.U. Bhuyan and M.M.H. Khan. 2016. Prevalence of Gastro-intestinal Nematodes Infection of Cattle in Bangladesh. AJPCT. 4(03):091-097
  36. Islam, A. 2013. Comparative efficacy of ivermectin plus clorsulon and nitroxynil against naturally infected cattle. Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Science, 29(1): 43-45.
  37. Islam, S.T., M.Y. Ganaie, S.S. Kubra, R. Ali and A.K. Singh. 2017. Ivermectin Toxicity in a German Shepherd Cross Breed Dog: A Case Study. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci 6(11): 1452-1455.
  38. Jackson, H. C. 1989. Ivermectin as a systemic insecticide. Parasitol. Today, 5(5): 146-156.
  39. Jaeger, L.H. and F. A. Carvalho-Costa. 2017. Status of benzimidazole resistance in intestinal nematode populations of livestock in Brazil: a systematic review. BMC Veterinary Research. 13:358: 1-10.
  40. Juarez, M., S.C. Alejandro and D.G. Alfonso. 2018. Review Article The multitargeted drug ivermectin: from an antiparasitic agent to a repositioned cancer drug. Am J Cancer Res .8(2):317-331
  41. Kim, J.S. and E.C. Crichlow. 1995. Clinical signs of ivermectin toxicity and the efficacy of antigabaergic convulsants as antidotes for ivermectin poisoning in epileptic chickens. Vet Hum Toxicol., 37(2):122-126.
  42. Kita, K., K. Shiomi and S. Omura. 2007. Advances in drug discovery and biochemical studies Trends Parasitol., 23 (5): 223-229
  43. Kumar, R.R. and S. Vatsya. 2013. Efficacy of Ivermectin – Clorsulon combination against mixed helminthic infection in goat – a case report. Veterinary Research International. 1(1): 31-32.
  44. Laffont, C.M., M. Alvinerie, A. Bousquet-Mélou and P.L. Toutain. 2001. Licking behaviour and environmental contamination arising from pour-on ivermectin for cattle. Int. J. Parasitol., 31(14):1687-1692.
  45. Lanusse, C., A. Lifschitz, G. Virkel, L. Alvarez, S. Sánchez, J.F. Sutra, P. Galtier and M. Alvinerie. 1997. Comparative plasma disposition kinetics of ivermectin, moxidectin and doramectin in cattle. J Vet Pharmacol Ther., 20 (2): 91–99.
  46. Leon-Vizca?no, L., M.J., Cubero, E., Gonzalez-Capitel, M.A., Simon, L., Perez, M.R., Ruiz de Ybanez, J.M., Ort?z., M.G. Candela and F. Alonso. 2001. Experimental Ivermectin Treatment Of Sarcoptic Mange and Establishment of A Mange-Free Population of Spanish Ibex. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 37(4): 775–785.
  47. Lespine, A. 2013. Lipid-like properties and pharmacology of the anthelmintic macrocyclic lactones Expert Opin. Drug Metab. Toxicol., 9(12):1-15
  48. Lo, P.K., D.W. Fink, J.B. Williams and J. Blodinger. 1985. Pharmacokinetic studies of ivermectin: Effects of formulation. Vet. Res.Commun., 9(1):251-268
  49. Lobetti, G. and P.I. Caldwell. 2012.Doramectin toxicity in a group of lions (Panthera leo). J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc., 83(1):89-92.
  50. Louw, J.P. 1995. Anthelmintic sales in the Highveld region of Eastern Transvaal. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association. 66(2):66-70
  51. Lovell, R.A. 1990. Ivermectin and Piperazine Toxicoses in Dogs and Cats April 1990. Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice, 20(2):453-68
  52. Ludmerer, S.W., V.A. Warren, B.S. Williams, Y. Zheng, D.C. Hunt, M.B. Ayer, M.A. Wallace, A.G. Chaudhary, M.A. Egan, P.T. Meinke, D.C. Dean, M.L.
  53. Garcia, D.F. Cully and M.M Smith. 2002. Ivermectin and nodulisporic acid receptors in Drosophila melanogaster contain both gamma-aminobutyric acid-gated Rdl and glutamate-gated GluCl alpha chloride channel subunits Biochemistry. 41 (20):6548-6560
  54. McKellar, Q. A. and F. Jackson 2004. Veterinary anthelmintics: old and new. Trends in Parasitology, 20(10): 456-461.
  55. Merola, V.M. and P.A. Eubig. 2012. Toxicology of Avermectins and Milbemycins (Macrocylic Lactones) and the Role of P-Glycoprotein in Dogs and Cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract., 42(2): 1-22 .
  56. Mestorino, N., E. Turic, J. Pesoa, A.J. Echeverri and J.O. Errecalde. 2003. Pharmacokinetics in plasma of ivermectin after its oral (solution and tablets) administration to sheep. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap., 26(4): 307–309.
  57. Miller, J. A., R. O. Drummond and D. D. Oehler. 1983. A sustained release ivermectin implant for livestock pest control. In: Roseman, T. J., and S. Z. Mansdorf (eds.). Controlled Release Delivery Sys tems. Marcel Dekker, New York, New York. Pp. 223 236.
  58. Mirhadi, K., G. Yagoob and S. Saeid. 2011. The effect of Ivermectin pour-on administration against natural Nematodirus spathiger infestations and prevalent rate of that in cattle. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res., 5(23): 3858-3861.
  59. Molento, M.B., A. Lifschitz, J. Sallovitz, C. Lanusse and R. Prichard. 2004. Influence of verapamil on the pharmacokinetics of the antiparasitic drugs Ivermectin and moxidectin in sheep. J. Parasitol. Res., 92(2): 121-127.
  60. Muhammad, G., J. Abdul, M.Z. Khan and M. Saqib. 2004. Use of neostigmine in massive ivermectin toxicity in cats. Vet Hum Toxicol., 46(1):28-29.
  61. Muller, K.R. and C. Dwyer. 2016. Suspected levamisole intoxication in calves. N Z Vet J 64(4): 257-260.
  62. Neff, M.W., K.R. Robertson, A.K. Wong, N. Safra, K.W. Broman, M. Slatkin, K.L. Mealey and N.C. Pedersen. 2004. Breed distribution and history of canine mdr1-1?, a pharmacogenetic mutation that marks the emergence of breeds from the collie lineage. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 101(32): 11725-11730.
  63. Nelson, O.L., E. Carsten, S.A. Bentjen and K.L. Mealey. 2003. Ivermectin Toxicity in an Australian Shepherd Dog with the MDR1Mutation Associated with Ivermectin Sensitivity in Collies. J Vet Intern Med., 17(3):354–356.
  64. Norman, T.E., M.K. Chaffin, P.L. Norton, M.C. Coleman, W.B. Stoughton and T. Mays. 2012. Concurrent Ivermectin and Solanum spp. Toxicosis in a Herd of Horses. J Vet Intern Med., 26:1439–1442
  65. Nwoha, R. I. O. 2011. A case report on scabies in a goat. Clin. Rev. Opinions. 3(5):51-54.
  66. Omura, S. 2008. Ivermectin: 25 years and still going strong. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 31(2): 91–98.
  67. Otranto, D., G. Johnson, K. Syvrud, S. Yoon, J.S. Hunter and S. Rehbein. 2016. Treatment and control of bovine hypodermosis with ivermectin long-acting injection (IVOMEC® GOLD). Parasites & Vectors 9 (551): 1-6.
  68. Page, N., C., de Jaham and paradis, M. 2000. Observations on topical ivermectin in the treatment of otoacariosis, cheyletiellosis, and toxocariosis in cats. Can Vet J., 41(10):773-776
  69. Panahi, Y., Z.Poursaleh and Goldust, M. 2015. The efficacy of topical and oral ivermectin in the treatment of human scabies. Annals of Parasitology, 61(1): 11–16
  70. Patel, P.K., S.K. Patel, S. Bhatt, D. Deepak, A. Prabhakar, B. Patel, C. Rabha and and S.K. Dixit. 2018. Therapeutic Management of Ivermectin Toxicity in a Calf: A Case Report. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci., 7(04): 1964-1969.
  71. Pena-Espinoza, M., S.M. Thamsborg, M.J. Denwood, M. Drag, T.V. Hansen, V.F Jensen and H.L. Enemark. 2016. Efficacy of ivermectin against gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle in Denmark evaluated by different methods for analysis of faecal egg count reduction. International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance. 6:241-250.
  72. Plummer, C.E., M.E. Kallberg, F.J. Ollivier, D.E. Brooks and K.N. Gelatt. 2006 Suspected ivermectin toxicosis in a miniature mule foal causing blindness. Vet Ophthalmol., 9(1):29-32.
  73. Pooda, H.S., R. Jean Baptiste, D.F. de Sale Hien, T. Lefèvre, S.R. Yerbanga, Z. Bengaly, R.K. Dabiré, A.M.G. Belem, I. Sidibé, P. Solano and K.
  74. Mouline. 2015. Administration of ivermectin to peridomestic cattle: a promising approach to target the residual transmission of human malaria. Malaria Journal, 14 (496):1-12.
  75. Prasad, V. and K.M. Koley. 2006. Treatment of Worm Infestation. In: Synopsis of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology. (1st edn), Vahini Publications, India, pp. 235-260.
  76. Prichard, R., C. Ménez and A. Lespine. 2012. Moxidectin and the avermectins: Consanguinity but not identity. Int. J. Parasitol. Drugs Drug Resist., 2: 134–153.
  77. Puspitasari, S., A. Farajallah, E. Sulistiawati and Muladno. 2016. Effectiveness of Ivermectin and Albendazole against Haemonchus contortus in Sheep in West Java, Indonesia. Tropical Life Sciences Research, 27(1): 135–144.
  78. Puspitasari, S., E. Sulistiawati, M. Basar and Farajallah, A. 2015. Efektivitas Ivermectin dan Albendazole dalam Melawan Ostertagia pada Anakan Domba di Bogor, Indonesia Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia (JIPI) 20 (3): 257-264.
  79. Radostits, O. M., G. C. Gay, D. C. Blood and K. W. Hinchkiliff. 2000. Veterinary Medicine 9th ed. EIBS and Bailliere,Tindal
  80. Rahman, M. M., M. A. Hossain and M. R. Alam. 2009a. Clinical Evaluation of Different Treatment Regimes for Management of Myiasis In Cattle. Bangl. J. Vet. Med. 7(2) : 348 – 352
  81. Rahman, M. M., M. Mostofa, V. G. Barman, R. Mian and S.A. Mamun. 2009b. Comparative Efficacy Of Dadmardan, Neem And Ivermectin Against Skin Lesions In Calves And Goats Bangl. J. Vet. Med. 7(1) : 275 – 280
  82. Rahman, M.M., A. Kabir, M.K. Islam, M.S. Rahman, M.S. Yasmin, F. Alom, M.A. Islam, S. Ahmed, M.R. Islam and M.H. Islam. 2017. Prospects and genesis of the versatile antiparasitic drug Ivermectin and its unsurpassed beneficial impact in Human and Veterinary Medicine. Int. J. Nat. Sci., 6(3):132-140
  83. Rahman, M.M. and M.A. Samad. 2010. Prevalence of subclinical gastro-intestinal parasitosis and their effects on milk production with therapeutic management in red chittagong cattle. Bangl J Vet Med., 8(1): 11-16.
  84. Raunelli, F. and S. Gonzales. 2009. Strategic control and prevalence of fasciola hepatica in Peru: a pilot study. Int. J. App. Res. Vet. Med., 7(4):145-152
  85. Reinemeyer, C.R. and C. H. Courtney. 2001. Antinematodal drugs. In: Adams HR, editor. Veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics. Ames: Iowa State University Press; 2001. p. 963–69.
  86. Roberson, F.L. 1988. Antinematodal drugs. In: Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Booth, N.H. and McDonald, L.E. (eds), 3rd Ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa. pp. 340-345.
  87. Rothen-Weinhold, A., M.D. Gurny and M. Dahn. 2000. Formulation and technology aspects of conrolled drug delivery in animals. Pharm Sci Technol Today 3:222–31
  88. Sanford, S.E., A.J. Rehmtulla and G.K.A. Josephson. 1988. Ivermectin Overdose and Toxicosis in Neonatal Pigs. Can Vet J., 29 (9): 735-736.
  89. Saqib, M., G. Abbas and M.N. Mughal. 2015. Successful management of ivermectininduced blindness in an African lion (Panthera leo) by intravenous administration of a lipid emulsion. BMC Veterinary Research, 11 (287): 1-7.
  90. Senthilkumar, A., P. Balamurugan, S., Murugesan, A. Yasotha, A. Shanmugasundram and N. Sribalaji. 2016. Clinical Features, Diagnosis and Treatment of Unusual Case of Cutaneous Stephanofilariasis in Crossbred Dairy Cattle. International Journal of Science, and Technology, 5 (4): 2045 – 2049
  91. Shoop, W.L., B. Michael, J. Egerton, H. Mrozik and M. Fisher. 2001. Titration of subcutaneously administered eprinomectin against mature and immature nematodes in cattle. J. Parasitol., 87 (6): 1466-1469.
  92. Siroka, Z. and Z. Svobodova. 2013. The toxicity and adverse effects of selected drugs in animals – overview .Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences. 16 (1): 181–191.
  93. Sivine, F., C. Plume and M. Ansay. 1985. Picrotoxin, the antidote to ivermectin in dogs?. Vet Rec., 116(7):195-196.
  94. Stapley, E.O. and H. B. Woodruff. 1982. avermectin, antiparasitic lactones produced by Streptomyces avermitilis isolated from a soil in Japan. In: Umezawa, H., Deamin, A.L., Hata, T., Hutchinson, C.R. (Eds.), Trends in Antibiotic Research. Japan Antibiotics Research Association, Tokyo, pp. 154–170.
  95. Steel, J.W. 1993. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of avermectins in livestock. Veterinary Parasitology, 48 (1-4): 45–47.
  96. Swor, T.M., J. L. Whittenburg and M.K. Chaffin. 2009. Ivermectin toxicosis in three adult horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc., 235(5):558-62.
  97. Teare, J. A. and M. Bush. 1983.Toxicity and efficacy of ivermectin in chelonians. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 183 (11): 1195-1197.
  98. Thiripurasundari, M., K. Sathya, A. Uma, M.R. Srinivasan and P. Rajasekar. 2014. A Comparative Study on the Toxicity of Ivermectin in Zebra Fish and Catla Fish Models. Indo American Journal of Pharm Research. 4(09): 3683-3688
  99. Watchko, J.F., M.J. Daood, B. Mahmood, K. Vats, C. Hart and M. Ahdab-Barmada. 2001. P-glycoprotein and bilirubin disposition. J Perinatol. 21 (Suppl 1):S43-S47.
  100. Wolstenholme, A.J. 2011. Ion channels and receptor as targets for the control of parasitic nematodes. International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance, 1(1): 2-13.
  101. Wosu, M. I. and A. I. Onyeabor. 2015. Use of Ivermectin in the Therapy of Sarcoptic Mange in West African Dwarf Goat: A Case Report. J. Vet. Adv., 5(6): 1014-1016.
  102. Xiang, W.S., J.D. Wang, M. Wang and X.J. Wang. 2010. New nemadectin congener from Streptomyces microflavus neau3: fermentation, isolation, structure elucidation and biological activities. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 63(4):171-175.
  103. Yas-Natan, E., M. Shamir, S. Kleinbart and I. Aroch. 2003. Doramectin toxicity in a collie. Veterinary Record 153 (23): 718–720.
  104. Yates, D.M., V. Portillo and A.J. Wolstenholme 2003. The avermectin receptors of Haemonchus contortus and Caenorhabditis elegans. International Journal for Parasitology. 33(11): 1183-1193.
  105. Zalizar, L. 2017. Helminthiasis saluran cerna pada sapi perah Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan. 27 (2): 116 – 122.
  106. Zaman, M.A., T.U. Rehman, R.Z. Abbas, W. Babar, M.N. Khan, M.T. Riaz, R. Hussain, T. Ghauri and M. Arif. 2017. Therapeutic potential of Ivermectin, doramectin and trichlorophan against Psoroptes ovis in sheep and cattle of Cholistan. Pak Vet J., 37(2): 233-235.

Most read articles by the same author(s)